Ship / Platform / Wind
All constructions under the waterline are subject to similar conditions. The influence of the water, whether fresh or salt water, leads to the very strong attack on the surfaces in the shortest possible time. First, a mucous membrane is always formed, which is then the breeding ground for further growth. Biofilm, algae, cirripedes (invertebrates), mussels, and all other vegetation claim the surfaces in such a way that only very frequent cleaning (high pressure, brushing, scratching) provides a certain remedy. There is no protection in the form of paint, electroplating or plastic that meets these requirements for a long time to be met. The use of antifouling has long been an adequate means, but not without environmental impacts. Today's antifouling must comply with environmental regulations and is therefore significantly restricted in its service life.
Biocides Antifouling Active Agents
In the past, tin-organic broad-spectrum biocides were used as active ingredients in antifouling coatings. The most well-known compound from this group is the tributyltin (TBT). However, the use of organotin compounds in antifouling coatings has been banned internationally since 2008, as these substances remain in the environment for a long time, are highly toxic and have a hormonal effect on aquatic organisms. For example, since 1 January 2008, ships flying the flag of an EU Member State under whose sovereignty are operated or at a port of a Member State are not allowed to have antifouling coatings with organotin compounds. If this is nevertheless the case, a top layer must prevent the leaching of these compounds (Regulation EC 782/2003). The same rule was adopted by the IMO (International Maritime Organization) in 2001 with the AFS (International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships). The Convention entered into force on 17 September 2008. Since then, TBT has been banned internationally as an active ingredient in ship coatings.
In biocidal-containing antifouling coatings, copper compounds are currently predominantly used as active ingredients. To increase effectiveness, these are often combined with other biocides. Although these antifouling biocides are not as extremely harmful as TBT, they are highly effective and often difficult to degrade substances that can also have undesirable effects on aquatic organisms. In 2000, the European Union produced approximately 668 tonnes of biocide active substances intended for use in antifouling (Assessment of different options to address risks from the use phase of biocides, EC, 2009).
Antifouling in the recreational boat sector
As part of a research project, biocidal agents were investigated in 50 German marinas in 2013 on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency. In this process, exposures to copper and organic biocides have been detected nationwide, some of which are of concern. For the organic biocide Cybutryn, the concentrations at 35 of the 50 pleasure boat ports were above the environmental quality standard (UQN) of 0.0025 µg/L set out in the EU guideline (2013/39/EU) and which must not be permanently exceeded as an annual average. At five sites, the concentrations of this priority substance under the Water Framework Directive were even above the maximum permitted concentration of the EU environmental quality standard of 0.016 µg/L, which must not be exceeded once. The highest concentration of 0.119 µg/L was measured in an inland port. However, as this active substance has not been marketable in the EU since 31 January 2017, a decreasing burden can be expected in the medium term. The metals copper and zinc could be detected in almost all samples. The highest contents were determined in brackish water, with a maximum of 20 µg copper/L and 27 µg zinc/L - each from the filtered sample. However, both metals are not only used in antifouling coatings for recreational boats, but also enter the environment through other applications. Increased concentrations were usually found in relatively large, well-defined marinas. The contents do not take into account the proportion bound to suspended matter. It can be assumed that the metal content bound to suspended solids sediments in the medium term and accumulates in the harbour floor in the long term.
Between 2014 and 2017, the international research project CHANGE, funded by the BMBF and the EU, examined, among other things, antifouling practice in the Baltic Sea region and searched for practice-oriented and environmentally friendly anti-fouling methods. Various biocidal-free processes such as ultrasound, silicone-based non-stick coatings, cleaning processes on special hard coatings and films pulled around the hull at the berth were tested. In addition, plate tests were carried out at several sites on the Baltic coast to investigate how much copper - the most widely used antifouling agent in the Baltic Sea - is necessary for effective anti-fouling protection in which areas is necessary in order to avoid excessive dosing of antifouling coatings. Numerous publications have emerged from the project. This and other more detailed information is published on the English homepage of the project. The "BONUS CHANGE Recommendations towards Regulations for Sustainable Antifouling practices in the Baltic Sea", i.e. the project's recommendations on how to ensure the sustainable application of antifouling coatings in the Baltic Sea in the future, lead to many of these study results and show a possible path to a more environmentally friendly antifouling practice in the Baltic Sea.
Impellent / Cooling / Heat-exchanger / Boxcooler
Ensuring operating temperature
The operating temperature is ensured by the heat exchanger. Clean pipes, filters, pumps, etc. are the basic prerequisite for the ship's propulsion system to reliably do the work. If the cooling temperature increases, significantly more diesel or heavy oil is consumed. In the worst case, the drive machine is significantly damaged.
The Ultrasonic HS technology keeps the cables clean.
Cooling / Filter
The problem of a filter in the cooling circuit, which has just been highlighted, is emblematic of all systems on ships and yachts.
Example - Cooling water circuit
Ultrasound - not cavitative -
The coolant of each ship (use in fresh and salt water) circulates through sea boxes or openings in the hull. The water surrounding the fuselage is used to cool the systems on board. The higher the surrounding water temperature, the more problematic the cooling on board becomes. Keeping the pipes and containers free of vegetation is vital!
A good example are cable-laying on high seas. On these floating platforms, all pipes and containers must be kept free of vegetation so that the entire technology and drive can function smoothly.
The HS technology ensures maximum safety here.
Ultimately, the requirements on a platform installed in the high seas are similar to those of a ship. Here, too, the cooling and drinking water from the surrounding lake is used. The vegetation is even higher compared to ships, because a platform is geolocal and does not move. Only the sea passage creates a movement on the wall through the waves. A perfect prerequisite for nature to settle here too. The resulting consequences are widely known. The use of chemicals and UV systems is the result here. Only non-cavitative utraschall also reaches the places that are seemingly unattainable.
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Offshore wind farms are now an important part of the power supply. The foundations lie in the salt water and are exposed to the same vegetation as a ship's hull. Keeping this stand free of vegetation is essential. Whether "jackets, tripods, monopiles or floating foundations, none of these constructions can be cleaned and maintained in a dock. Longevity is a component that must already be considered in the planning.
Even here, Non-cavitative ultrasound is also worth a consideration!